Health and safety is very new concept in Libya. Mainly HS requirements were only applied in oil and gas sector which are supported with international oil companies. OSHA is most common standard applied. Last a few years construction sector is booming in Libya. Many civil and social projects are ongoing. Tripoli is like a big construction camp. 10 billion dollars of building, shopping malls, airport, stadium, infrastructure projects are under construction at the same time. There are many International construction company came to Libya and they have been awarded several projects. These companies brought their quality and safety aspects to the country. So construction sector in Libya introduced with health safety.
Each year excavation and trenching cave-ins result in more than 5,000 serious injuries and 100 deaths in the United States alone. And this is a country with a long and well established safety regulatory regime! The key to prevention of this type of loss is good planning. When the side of a trench decides to move it is too late to be thinking about your safety or the safety of others. Here are some good safety rules and practices to follow when working in or around excavations.
- Evaluation of shoring, sloping, or other means to eliminate the potential for cave-ins must be performed prior to the start of work. Consider these engineering controls at the pre-bid stage. The costs associated with some systems may significantly reduce or eliminate the profit of a job if not considered at the time of the bid. The evaluation must be performed by a trained person who is knowledgeable in the areas of soil analysis, the use of protective systems, and in the requirements of applicable standards and regulations. Without this pre-job planning, project foremen may be inclined to "make-do" just to get the job done. Shortcuts might be taken, putting employees in significant danger. Perform these pre-job procedures regardless of the duration of the project or because the ground "just looks solid."
- Work in an excavation or trench must at all times be under the immediate supervision of a qualified person.
- Excavated material must be placed at least 2 feet (61cms) from the edge of any trench or excavation, which is 4 or more feet (122cms) in depth.
- Adequate precautions must be taken to ensure that vibrating equipment and vehicular traffic do not cause a cave-in.
- Always consider ground water seepage as a potential cause of collapse of any trench or excavation.
- Safe access/egress must be provided (stairway, ladder, ramp, etc.). The equipment must be securely fastened in place. Access must be provided and located so no worker must laterally travel more than 25 feet (760 cms) to access the egress point in any trench or excavation deeper than four feet.
There are specific standards for the materials used for shoring, and for the angles of slopes used to protect workers. All the protection methods depend on the composition of the soil. Contact your company's excavation competent person for more specific information.
If you aren't certain that the shoring, benching, or sloping is adequate, stay out of the excavation. Entering an unprotected excavation or trench may be the last thing you ever do.
I already registred to NEBOSH international diplama. at june 2010. unfortunatly I have not find chance to start study. it comes to me so boing specially the part A full of standartds laws. which I am so away. I am not able to concentrate on them is there anyone have a good idia how to start.? I want to have a forum on NEBOSH exams. if you alsa start to study recintly please share informatin and your questions.
1. The HEINRICH theory (USA – 1931) – in which Heinrich suggests that for each major accident there are likely to be 29 minor injuries and 300 non-injury accidents. Heinrich included property damage in his non-injury accident figure and propounded the theory that accidents not injuries should be the basis for any prevention programme.
2. The BIRD theory (USA – 1969) – in which Bird suggests, after a study of more than 1.7 million accidents, that for each serious injury there are likely to be 10 minor injuries, 30 property damage accidents and 600 non-injury/damage accidents.
3. The TYE/PEARSON theory (UK – 1974/5) conducted on behalf of the British Safety Council and based on a study of almost 1,000,000 accidents in British industry suggests that for each fatal or serious injury there would be 3 minor injuries when the victim would be absent for up to three days, 50 injuries requiring first aid treatment, 80 property damage accidents and 400 non-injury/damage accidents.
Here is the another NEBOSH question good luck
a) Explain how, in a working environment, the hepatitis B virus may be transmitted to employees, identifying the types of occupation that present a particular risk (4)
(b) As the H&S Adviser to a local authority, prepare a short report for departmental managers that
(i) Outlines, with relevant examples, a strategy of measures to minimize the risk of hepatitis B infection (12)
(ii) Identify the statutory reporting requirements that are relevant in the case of an employee receiving a needle-stick injury at work
If you know the answer please share with us